Iglesia de Los Capuchinos

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Lo simbólico y lo cultural en un ícono arquitectónico de Córdoba

Por Roberto Tosi

 

Esculturas góticas, estatuas de referentes religiosos, torres de 50 metros y obras de grandes artistas que esperan en penumbras la llegada de fieles o turistas, caracterizan a uno de los templos más visitados de la ciudad de Córdoba. Se trata de la iglesia del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús, más conocida como iglesia de Los Capuchinos, que se destaca por su estilo arquitectónico y su valor simbólico y cultural en una ciudad donde lo religioso se percibe en cada rincón.

Su construcción inició en e l año 1926 y se inauguró sin haber sido terminada en su totalidad en 1933. La obra estuvo a cargo del arquitecto italiano Augusto Cesar Ferrari, quien desarrolló parte de su importante labor en Villa Allende abarcando además otros campos como la fotografía y la pintura. El templo basado en el estilo neogótico se distingue de otros por el uso del color. Placas de revestimiento, sectores de revoque fino, piezas pre moldeadas dan cuenta del empleo de este recurso por medio de diferentes técnicas. Otro aspecto a destacar es el relativo a su estructura de hormigón armado realizada por los ingenieros Giralt,  Nores y Olmedo cuya impronta forma parte del esplendor arquitectónico de estilo europeo que caracterizó a la Docta a principios del siglo XX.

“Los Capuchinos ejemplifica técnicas y diseños propios, época de revivals, aparición de neos y eclecticismo en los diseños. De tal modo se conjugan elementos propios del gótico como arquivoltas (decoraciones en la parte interna de los arcos de una construcción), rosetones (ventana circular calada que dispone de una vidriera en forma radial), verticalidad marcada, pilastras, arcos ojivales (tipo de arco compuestos por dos tramos formando un ángulo central), con una decoración barroca recargada, impropia del estilo puro.”

 

Las esculturas son otro gran atractivo. Éstas fueron realizadas por el artista italiano Luis Ramaciotti, quien además es autor de una serie de obras distribuidas en otros lugares como por ejemplo El Cristo Redentor de la localidad cordobesa de La Cumbre, La Fuente Neptuno del parque Sarmiento, entre otras. Las pinturas del interior no pasan desapercibidas. Las bóvedas del techo conjugan lo artístico y lo científico al representar los meses del cielo nocturno cordobés. Estudios mencionados por el investigador Santiago Paulantonio del observatorio astronómico de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, revelan que el cielo retratado  se hizo con una precisión y exactitud asombrosa. Vale destacar que el encargado de tal trabajo fue el propio Ferrari, quien representó casi a la perfección el cielo de la Docta de los años 30 tomando como referencia el primer día de cada mes, respetando la ubicación de los grupos de estrellas, la intensidad de la luz, el color y las dimensiones a escala sin dejar de lado la impronta artística. En las pinturas de los laterales se observa la misma exactitud con la salvedad que reflejan el firmamento de los días 15 de cada mes con el mismo rigor científico y artístico.

En cuanto a su nombre, originalmente la iglesia se denominó Sagrado Corazón de Jesús, “representando la devoción al corazón físico de Jesús como símbolo de amor divino.” Con el tiempo los vecinos de la zona comenzaron a llamarla Los Capuchinos, dado a que miembros de esa orden atendían a los fieles también en la parroquia Hermanas del Buen Pastor, ubicada sobre la calle lateral del templo. Los primeros misioneros de esta orden Franciscana llegaron a Córdoba en 1911, y se caracterizaban por el uso de capuchas o capas. Esta corriente religiosa fue representada también en la iglesia por medio de obras que hacen referencia a la vida de San Francisco de Asís, iniciador de la orden.

El paso del tiempo trajo consigo sus consecuencias y tanto la estructura como algunas obras se deterioraron. Por esta razón se inició una restauración con el objeto de recuperar el estado original del templo. La misma concluyó en 2016 y generó algunas polémicas por los materiales y los colores utilizados.

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